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CANADA AND THE FIVE 

Eyes Intelligence Community 

James Cox I December 2012 


Strategic Studies working Group Papers 


CIC 

Canadian International Council 
Conseil International du Canada 




Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community 


ABOUT THE AUTHOR 

Brigadier-General James S. Cox (Retired), originally from Toronto, Ontario, was commissioned as an infantry 
officer in 1967, into the Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada and then served in The Royal 
Canadian Regiment (The RCR) from 1970 until his retirement from the Canadian Forces in 2001. 

In 1991 he became Deputy Commander of the Special Service Force, before taking up duty as the Military 
Chief of Staff of UN0S0M I and II in 1992, in Somalia. In 1993, Brigadier-General Cox was appointed 
Commander, 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group. In 1995 he was appointed Director General Land Force 
Development in Ottawa. Between 1996-98, he served as the Land Force Command Inspector. In 1998 Brigadier- 
General Cox became Deputy Assistant Chief of Staff Intelligence at Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers 
Europe, where he helped oversee NATO strategic military intelligence activity throughout the Eurasian landmass. 

Brigadier-General Cox holds a Ph.D. and M.A. in War Studies from the Royal Military College of Canada 
and a B.A. in Political Studies from the University of Manitoba. In 1993 he was awarded the Order of Military 
Merit in the grade of Officer, by the Governor General of Canada. 

After retiring from the Canadian Forces, Brigadier-General Cox became the Executive Secretary of the 
Canadian Association for Security and Intelligence Studies in 2004. From 2005-2011 he was an analyst in the 
Library of Parliament, assigned to advise a number of House of Commons and Senate committees dealing with 
international security, national defence and veterans affairs issues. He now teaches Canadian foreign policy at 
the University of Ottawa and civil-military relations at the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, at 
Carleton University. 


The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the 
Canadian International Council, its Senate or its Board of Directors, or the views of the Canadian Defence & 
Foreign Affairs Institute. 

If you would like to download a copy of this report please visit www.cdfai.org or www.opencanada.org. 

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ISSN 1925-4903 

© 2012 Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute and Canadian International Council 


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Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community 


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 

The January 2012 arrest of Canadian Sub-Lieutenant Jeffery Delisle for supplying Top Secret intelligence 
to Russia reminded Canadians of Canada's involvement in the Five Eyes intelligence community, the world's 
most exclusive intelligence sharing club that includes Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom 
and the United States. This paper promotes further understanding of the nature and structure of the Five Eyes 
intelligence community by reviewing three selected intelligence disciplines— signals intelligence (sigint), national 
assessment, and defence intelligence. 

The Five Eyes intelligence community grew out of twentieth-century British-American intelligence 
cooperation. While not monolithic; the group is more cohesive than generally known. Rather than being centrally 
choreographed, the Five Eyes group is more of a cooperative, complex network of linked autonomous intelligence 
agencies, interacting with an affinity strengthened by a profound sense of confidence in each other and a degree 
of professional trust so strong as to be unique in the world. 

The paper suggests that, given Canadian foreign policy initiatives and evolving strategic security threats, not 
only must Canada maintain credible and valuable intelligence support to its partners, the Five Eyes intelligence 
community as a whole must remain integrated, effective and dominant. 


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Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community 


SOMMAIRE 

L'arrestation, en janvier 2012, du sous-lieutenant canadien Jeffery Delisle sous I'accusation d'avoir fourni des 
renseignements tres secrets a la Russie a rappele aux Canadiens la participation du Canada a la communaute de 
renseignements Five Eyes, le club de partage de renseignements le plus exclusif du monde qui reunit le Canada, 
I'Australie, la Nouvelle-Zelande, le Royaume-Uni et les Etats-Unis. La presente communication veut promouvoir 
une comprehension plus profonde de la nature et de la structure de la communaute de renseignements 
Five Eyes en passant en revue trois disciplines de renseignements choisies, les services de renseignements 
electromagnetiques (SIGINT), devaluation nationale et les renseignements de defense. 

La communaute de renseignements Five Eyes est nee de la cooperation britannico-americaine. Bien qu'il ne 
soit pas monolithique, le groupe est plus cohesif qu'on le croit generalement. Plutot que d'etre choregraphie a 
partir d'un point central, le groupe des Five Eyes ressemble plus a un reseau cooperatif complexe d'organismes 
de renseignements autonomes, interagissant avec une affinite renforcee par un sens profond de confiance les uns 
envers les autres et par un degre de confiance professionnelle si fort qu'il est unique au monde. 

Le document suggere que, etant donne les initiatives canadiennes en matiere de politique etrangere et 
les menaces changeantes a la securite strategique, non seulement le Canada doit-il maintenir un soutien de 
renseignements credible et valable envers ses partenaires, mais la communaute de renseignements Five Eyes 
dans son ensemble doit demeurer integree, efficace et dominante. 


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Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community 


Introduction 

Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) are members of the 
Five Eyes intelligence community, the most exclusive intelligence sharing club in the world. This cooperative 
relationship is not monolithic, but it is certainly more cohesive than is generally known. It grew from UK-US 
intelligence cooperation in the Second World War, matured during the Cold War, and continues to protect the 
national interests of all members today. Moreover, the evolving international security environment signals a need 
for enhanced Five Eyes intelligence cooperation in the future. 1 

Canadian foreign policy and trade initiatives will likely encounter new security issues, such as cyber threats 
and foreign interference by competing state owned enterprises, which will augment, not replace, traditional 
threats, such as terrorism and transnational organized crime. 2 In future, Canada will need more intelligence 
products from the Five Eyes intelligence community, not less, and vice versa. 

Canadians remain generally unaware of the extent to which Canada's national security relies on Five Eyes 
intelligence cooperation. Consider the recent case of Royal Canadian Navy Sub-Lieutenant Jeffery Delisle, who 
supplied Top Secret intelligence to Russia, from 2007 until his arrest in January 2012. Media commentators 
claimed Delisle's actions seriously damaged Canada's participation in the Five Eyes intelligence community. 
However, as troubling as it may be, Delisle's betrayal will not permanently interfere with Five Eyes intelligence 
sharing arrangements. The relationship is made of sterner stuff. 

This paper promotes greater understanding of the Five Eyes intelligence community, as it exists today. The 
focus settles on the community as a whole, not on individual intelligence organizations. 3 Principal equivalent Five 
Eyes intelligence organizations are shown in the matrix at Appendix A, to which the reader may wish to refer 
while reading the remaining material. 4 

Some preliminary remarks about how the term 'Five Eyes' came about may be helpful at this point. In 
addition to assigning a level of classification to intelligence products (e.g. SECRET), dissemination at any level 
can be further restricted by use of a caveat that defines which 'eyes' may see the material. For example, a Top 
Secret document intended only for Canadian officials would be stamped as, "TOP SECRET— CANADIAN EYES 
ONLY." Canadian intelligence products to be shared with our closest intelligence allies are marked "SECRET— 
AUS/CAN/NZ/UK/US EYES ONLY." In conversation, allied intelligence personnel adopted the term "Five Eyes" 
as a form of verbal shorthand because it was easier to say than "AUS/CAN/NZ/UK/US." 5 Although the term has 
only recently become common public knowledge, the Five Eyes relationship has existed for nearly seventy years. 


1 At this point I wish to recognize the valuable advice provided to me by Alan Barnes, a former Director in the International Assessments Staff of the Privy 
Council Office; Greg Fyffe, a former Executive Director of the International Assessments Staff; and Dr. Kurt Jensen, an adjunct professor at Carleton University 
and former official in the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. They were ruthless, but kind, in their critiques of my working drafts. That being 
said and their valiant efforts notwithstanding, any remaining shortcomings are entirely my own fault. 

2 See the "Cybersecurity" and "Espionage and Foreign Interference" sections of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service 2010-2011 Annual Report, at 
https://www.csis.gc.ca/pblctns/nnlrprt/2010-2011/rprt2010-2011-eng_final.asp#efi (accessed 29 October 2012). 

3 Links to websites of individual intelligence organizations are provided in following footnotes. The Canadian government traditionally refers to the government 
"security and intelligence" community, or sometimes just the "national security community/'Throughout this paper, I have isolated the intelligence community 
for clarity because intelligence sharing is the essence of the five eyes relationship, not security operations. 

4 I am indebted to Barnes for his help in developing this matrix. It is adapted from his earlier work in this field. Barnes also contributed significant background 
information on national assessments. 

5 Terms such as 'two-eyes/ 'three-eyes/ and 'four-eyes have not been adopted for widespread use, largely because it would cause confusion. For example, 
Canada sometimes shares intelligence with its Commonwealth allies about US policy. In such a case an intelligence document could be marked "SECRET— AUS/ 
CAN/NZ EYES ONLY." Conversely, our allies may well have shared views exclusively among themselves in documents marked "SECRET— AUS/NZ/US EYES 
ONLY." At the risk of sowing additional confusion, it should also be noted that the allied intelligence community is in the process of changing the way distribution 
caveats are shown. Rather than an 'EYES ONLY' approach, new terminology will show whom the information may be 'released to.' Some documents now show 
"SECRET Rel to AUS/CAN/NZL/GBR/USA" (even the country codes are changing to meet computing standardization requirements). I owe thanks to Barnes for 
this background. 


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Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community 


The Five Eyes intelligence community grew out of close UK-US intelligence cooperation in the Second 
World War. During the early stages of the Cold War, faced by growing Soviet conventional and nuclear threats, 
American and British intelligence cooperation became even more intimate, particularly in the realm of signals 
intelligence (sigint) and cryptology. 6 The 1946 British-US Communication Intelligence (UKUSA) Agreement 
created a Top Secret sphere of sigint cooperation whose existence was denied by participating governments 
for many years. 7 In tandem, other national intelligence organizations began to cooperate more closely with 
equivalent Five Eyes agencies. 

Ties that bind partners are certainly stronger than most observers realize, but there is no formal over-arching 
international agreement that governs all Five Eyes intelligence relationships. In fact, rather than being centrally 
choreographed, the Five Eyes community is more of a cooperative, complex network of linked autonomous 
intelligence agencies. Individual intelligence organizations follow their own nationally legislated mandates, but 
interact with an affinity strengthened by their common Anglo-Saxon culture, accepted liberal democratic values 
and complementary national interests, all seasoned with a profound sense of confidence in each other and a 
degree of professional trust so strong as to be unique in the world. 

Today, each group of cooperating intelligence organizations operates within its own complex legal and 
secret contexts. In all this, the relationship among Five Eyes sigint organizations remains the 'gold standard' of 
intelligence cooperation. 


SIGINT 

Briefly, sigint comes from the collection and analysis of electro-magnetic emissions broadcast throughout the 
global information grid. It has two principal components. First, communications intelligence (comint) is derived 
from the interception and analysis of electromagnetic communications and data links. Second, electronic 
intelligence (elint) collects and analyses non-communication emissions such as those used in radar detection, 
rocket telemetry and nuclear testing. Today, technological and computational advances create innumerable 
opportunities for the interception of diplomatic, military, scientific and commercial communications, as well as 
the extrapolation of radar, spacecraft and weapons systems characteristics. 8 While it cannot always reveal what 
an opponent is thinking, sigint can tell you what he is saying and doing, from which adversarial capability and 
intent might be deduced. Most critically, sigint can provide warning of imminent enemy activity at various levels. 

The Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC) is Canada's national sigint and cryptologic 
agency, and gateway into the Five Eyes sigint community. 9 CSEC cooperates with the Australian Defence Signals 
Directorate (DSD); 10 the Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB) in New Zealand; 11 the British 
Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), 12 and the US National Security Agency (NSA). 13 


6 Cryptology is the science of the enciphering and deciphering of messages in secret code or cipher. Today, it is more broadly applied to mean the science 
of secure electronic communications information systems. Decipherment (code-breaking) is the offensive form of cryptology. Encipherment (code-making) is 
cryptology's defensive form. 

7 Electronic versions of the UKUSA Agreement and supporting documents can be found online at the British National Archives, http://www.nationalarchives. 
gov.uk/ukusa/and on a US National Security Agency website at http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/declass/ukusa.shtml (accessed 28 October 2012). 

8 Jeffery T. Richelson, The US Intelligence Community, 5th ed., (Philadelphia, PA: Westview Press/Perseus Books Group, 2008), 209. 

9 See Appendix A. Also CSEC at, http://www.cse-cst.gc.ca/index-eng.html (accessed 27 October 2012). Government figures show that the total CSEC 
workforce totals 2025, see Treasury Board Secretariat, "Population Affiliation Report (25 July 2011), at http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pas-srp/report-rapport_e. 
asp?cat=f (accessed 28 October 2012). 

10 DSD, at http://www.dsd.gov.au (accessed 28 October 2012). 

11 GCSB, at http://www.gcsb.govt.nz (accessed 28 October 2012). 

12 GCHQ, at http://www.gchq.gov.uk/Pages/homepage.aspx (accessed 28 October 2012). 

13 NSA, at http://www.nsa.gov (accessed 27 October 2012). 


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Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community 


CSEC and its partners have similar, bifurcated, operational mandates. Their first mission aims to provide 
information assurance services within government. 14 In the post 9/11 era cyber security concerns have pushed 
this mission to new heights of interest. Cyberspace is now an accepted domain of warfare and Five Eyes sigint 
agencies are the principal 'warfighters', engaged in a simmering campaign of cyber defence against persistent 
transnational cyber threats. 15 The second mission is to provide government with foreign sigint in support of 
national decision-making. 16 In doing so, CSEC and its Five Eyes partners rely on each other to share the 
collection and analysis burden. Even the massive NSA cannot cover all threats, everywhere, all the time. 17 

Five Eyes sigint organizations remain officially responsible and accountable to their own governments, each 
of which retains the power of 'veto' over national sigint activity. Five Eyes sigint cooperation continues to be 
governed by the UKUSA Agreement and its associated technical instructions. A current version of the UKUSA 
Agreement is not publicly available, but sources indicate that the Agreement has evolved to keep abreast of 
modern threats and associated demands of sustaining a dominant cryptologic capability. 

National sigint heads meet at least once a year to review their collective performance and plan future 
activity. During the Cold War, the agendae and tenor of these meetings were very much set by the US, because of 
the immense scope of NSA activities and the preeminence of American global responsibilities. Today, Five Eyes 
sigint chiefs meet essentially as equals because, even with the size and extent of US sigint activity, each partner 
realizes that they cannot meet national requirements alone. They all need each other. 18 

Each Five Eyes partner collects information over a specific area of the globe in accordance with their 
national priorities, but their collection and analysis activities are orchestrated to the point that they essentially 
act as one. Precise assignments are not publicly known, but research indicates that Australia monitors South 
and East Asia emissions. New Zealand covers the South Pacific and Southeast Asia. The U l< devotes attention 
to Europe and Western Russia, while the US monitors the Caribbean, China, Russia, the Middle East and Africa. 

As it did during the Cold War, Canada's arctic territory provides considerable sigint advantage. Canadian 
Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, was originally an arctic weather station, 
but began sigint duty by eavesdropping on northern regions of the Soviet Union in 1958. 19 Alert remains active 
today, collecting information from the interior of Russia and China. 20 Other Canadian sigint assets reach into 
Latin America and out into the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. 


14 The CSEC mandate is found in the National Defence Act, R.S.C., 1985, c. N-5 Section V.l, at http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/N-5/page-131. 
html#h-216 (accessed 28 October 2012). 

15 John Adams, Interview (28 August 2012). Adams is a former Chief of CSEC and now Skelton-Clark Fellow, School of Policy Studies, Queen's University. I 
have benefitted from his advice in developing this section. 

16 According to the National Defence Act, "foreign intelligence means information or intelligence about the capabilities, intentions or activities of a foreign 
individual, state, organization or terrorist group, as they relate to international affairs, defence or security." Department of Justice, National Defence Act, R.S.C., 
1985, c. N-5 Section V.l, paragraph 273.61. 

17 As an indication of the range of the US effort, consider that the Director of the National Security Agency, US Army General Keith B. Alexander, also holds 
the primary appointment of Commander, US Cyber Command, a subordinate unified command under US Strategic Command. General Alexander is also Chief of 
the Central Security Service, which provides cryptologic support, knowledge, and assistance to the military cryptologic community. 

18 Adams. 

19 CFS Alert was the closest point in North America to many Soviet military installations, such as the extensive military complex on the Kola Peninsula. The 
Soviets used their Arctic region for naval bases and ballistic missile testing, giving them first-strike capability against North America. Alert was near enough to 
pick up radio communications between the bases and submarines, ships and aircraft. See Jerry Proc's website on Alert at http://jproc.ca/rrp/alert.html (accessed 
28 October 2012). It offers one of the most detailed exposes available. 

20 Three other Canadian sigint sites deserve mention include: Canadian Forces Station Leitrim, in Ottawa, is the Canadian sigint collection headquarters that 
controls subordinate detachments at Alert; Masset, on Queen Charlotte Island, BC; and at Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador. Details of sigint operations 
conducted at Masset and Gander are not publicly available, but their orientation can be reasonably surmised. The Canadian Forces Information Operations Group 
operates all these sigint sites. 


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Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community 


Within this global sigint framework various intra-community relationships have gelled. In the maritime 
domain for example, Five Eyes surface and sub-surface sigint assets monitor international shipping traffic passing 
through maritime 'choke points/ particularly those routinely used by foreign submarines. 21 In the aerospace 
domain, sigint assets cover foreign satellite deployments, ballistic missile testing, and activities of strategic 
air forces. 22 Weapons procurement and associated illicit business dealings by rogue or otherwise problematic 
regimes also attract Five Eyes sigint attention, as do terrorist organizations throughout the world. Five Eyes 
sigint coverage may assist a member government engaged in sensitive international negotiations— be they 
diplomatic or economic— by eavesdropping on private conversations of other parties to the talks. 

Formal agreements notwithstanding, Sigint sharing is a collegial exercise, based on an extraordinary degree 
of trust and confidence. In day-to-day work, a great many sigint products are routinely shared among the Five 
Eyes. One can therefore see how instances of espionage, like the Delisle case, can be damaging to the reputation 
of a Five Eyes country and disturb the community relationship as a whole. 

Five Eyes partners apparently do not target each other, nor does any partner seek to evade their national 
laws by requesting or accepting such activity. 23 There is, however, no formal way of ensuring such eavesdropping 
does not take place. Each partner is trusted to adhere to this 'gentleman's agreement' between allies. 

The Five Eyes sigint community also plays a 'core' role in a larger galaxy of sigint organizations found in 
established democratic states, both west and east. Five Eyes 'plus' gatherings in the west include Canada's NATO 
allies and important non-NATO partners such as Sweden. To the east, a Pacific version of the Five Eyes 'plus' 
grouping includes, among others, Singapore and South Korea. Such extensions add 'reach' and 'layering' to Five 
Eyes sigint capabilities. 

There are other Five Eyes intelligence groupings that come close to achieving the unity found in the sigint 
relationship. One of them is the national assessments community. 


national Assessments 

Within the Canadian Privy Council Office (PCO), the Intelligence Assessment Secretariat (IAS) provides 
all-source strategic intelligence assessments to government. 24 Domestically, the IAS supports the Deputy 
Ministers' Intelligence Assessment (DMIA) Committee, which is the most senior body dealing with assessment 
issues in Canada. 

Acting abroad, the IAS represents Canada in the Five Eyes national assessments partnership. In Australia, 
the IAS equivalent is the Office of National Assessments (0NA). 25 The National Assessment Bureau (NAB) 
promulgates New Zealand's national assessments. 26 The IAS also works with the British Cabinet Office 
Assessments Staff (COAS). 27 


21 There is continuing interest in such strategically important maritime corridors such as the Strait of Hormuz, the Singapore Strait and the Greenland/Iceland/ 
UK (GIUIO Gap, to name only three. 

22 Richelson, "Signals Intelligence," The US Intelligence Community, Chapter 8, 209-244; and "Liaison with Foreign Services," Chapter 13, 341-366. 

23 Adams. 

24 IAS, at http://pco-bcp.gc.ca/index.asp?lang=eng&page=secretariats&sub=ias-bei&doc=ias-bei-eng.htm (accessed 28 October 2012). The IAS has also been 
known as the International Assessments Staff. The current version of the Government Electronic Directory Services website refers to the organization as the 
"Assessment Secretariat." Name variations, according to Barnes, have resulted from internal PCO politics dealing with sensitivity to using the word 'intelligence,' 
while trying to make senior elected officials and public service leaders understand what the IAS really does, so that it doesn't fall victim to budget cuts. 

25 ONA, at http://www.ona.gov.au/about-ona.html (accessed 27 October 2012). 

26 NAB, at http://www.dpmc.govt.nz/nab (accessed 28 October 2012). 

27 JIO, at http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/content/joint-intelligence-organisation (accessed 28 October 2012). 


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Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community 


Canadian national assessment links to the US are somewhat more complicated than those with other Five 
Eyes assessment staffs, mainly because of the sheer size and intricacy of the US intelligence community. The 
IAS exercises two principal links in Washington. First, it pursues foreign intelligence assessments of the Central 
Intelligence Agency's (CIA) Directorate of Intelligence (Dl ). 28 Second, the IAS also cooperates closely with the 
Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) in the US State Department, largely through the sharing of draft 
assessments and analyst visits. 29 The IAS-INR link is complemented by the INR relationship with the Canadian 
Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) Threat Assessment and Intelligence Services 
Division, by which both parties share diplomatic reporting and threat analysis. 

The Five Eyes national assessment community is professionally tight, bound by gravities of trust and 
confidence. Heads of national assessments meet at least annually and joint working groups are formed when 
needed to address relevant issues of mutual concern. Inter-agency contact is routine at working levels, where 
the default inclination is to consult widely before assessments are finalized and provided to government. This 
habit of analytical consultation should not be seen as a pejorative influence on Canadian assessments. In fact, 
it is quite the opposite. Other Five Eyes reviews of draft Canadian material ensures the IAS has considered 
an appropriately wide range of factors and issues prior to finalizing its conclusions and judgments. Conversely, 
the IAS is routinely invited to critique drafts of material produced by other Five Eyes partners . 30 This cross- 
pollination of analysis and critique serves to inform, not sway, national decision-making . 31 

Canadian participation in Five Eyes sigint and national assessment communities is complemented by a nearly 
equivalent relationship in the defence intelligence field, to which we now turn our attention. 


DEFENCE INTELLIGENCE 

Defence intelligence deals with foreign defence and military capabilities and intentions. It is derived from 
military intelligence and provided to government decision-makers. The Chief of Defence Intelligence (CDI) 
represents Canada in the Five Eyes defence intelligence community . 32 One partner is the Australian Defence 
Intelligence Organization (DIO ). 33 The Directorate of Defence Intelligence and Security (DDIS), is the CDI 
equivalent in New Zealand. 34 The CDI is also linked to the UK Defence Intelligence Service (DIS ). 35 In the US, 
the CDI works with the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA ). 36 

At least twice each year, the CDI meets with other Five Eyes heads of defence intelligence to address 
strategic issues of mutual concern. A network of intelligence liaison officers deployed among all partners 
facilitates consultation. Canadian Forces Intelligence Liaison Officers (CFILOs) are located in Washington, 
London and Canberra (cross-accredited to New Zealand). All Five Eyes defence intelligence partners are 
connected by a dedicated and secure Top Secret communications link nicknamed Stoneghost, the system to which 
Sub-Lieutenant Delisle had access . 37 


28 CIA/DI, at https://www.cia.gov/offices-of-cia/intelligence-analysis/index.html (accessed 27 October 2012). 

29 INR, at http://www.state.gOv/s/inr/ (accessed 28 October 2012). 

30 Greg Fyffe, Interview (28 August 2012). Draft Canadian assessments are also routinely shared within the Canadian intelligence community, as are other Five 
Eyes national assessments offered for review. I am indebted to Fyffe for much of the background information in this section. 

31 Quite apart from any question of UN sanction of the invasion, the Canadian government's decision not to participate in the US invasion was informed by 
credible and accurate intelligence. In the run-up to the 2003 US invasion of Iraq, Canadian national assessments correctly judged that Saddam Hussein had no 
stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction and exercised no links to Al Qaeda. 

32 Colonel Frangois Messier, Interview (7 September 2012). I owe a great deal of thanks to Colonel Messier for his help in preparing this section on defence 
intelligence. 

33 DIO, at http://www.defence.gov.au/dio/ (accessed 27 October 2012). 

34 DDIS, at http://www.dpmc.govt.nz/dpmc/publications/securingoursafety/ddis (accessed 28 October 2012). 

35 DIS, at http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/AboutDefence/WhatWeDo/SecurityandIntelligence/DIS/ (accessed 28 October 2012). 

36 DIA, at http://www.dia.mil (accessed 28 October 2012). 

37 Although maintained and managed by Five Eyes defence intelligence organizations, Stoneghost is not exclusively a defence intelligence network. It hosts 
contributions from sigint, foreign intelligence offices and national security intelligence organizations. Delisle also had access to 'Spartan/ the Top Secret computer 
network linking Canadian military intelligence offices; as well as 'Mandrake/ the classified Canadian intra-government network. 


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Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community 


When deployed outside Canada, Canadian Forces units invariably operate within a Five Eyes intelligence 
framework, as was the case during Canada's combat mission in Afghanistan. Intelligence support to Canadian 
military operations in Kandahar province was provided by an All-Source Intelligence Centre (ASIC), which 
was something of a microcosm of the Canadian and Five Eyes intelligence communities. In addition to military 
intelligence personnel, the ASIC hosted representatives of the Canadian Border Services Agency, Corrections 
Services Canada, CSEC, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, DFAIT, and the Royal Canadian Mounted 
Police. Australian, UK and US intelligence personnel also supported the ASIC, which itself had links to 
equivalent U l< and US organizations in neighbouring operational areas. The ASIC produced innovative and 
actionable intelligence products by integrating sigint, geospatial intelligence, human intelligence (humint) and 
other analyzed information. 

The Five Eyes defence intelligence community is interlaced with similar links in all five domains of warfare 
— maritime, land, air, space and cyberspace — producing a horizontal and vertical structural density not seen in 
other intelligence disciplines. 


The Future 

Over and above Canada's participation in the Five Eyes sigint, national assessment and defence intelligence 
communities, other Canadian intelligence organizations enjoy Five Eyes links. In addition to geospatial 
intelligence, intelligence relationships are also found in the fields of geospatial intelligence, national security 
intelligence, law enforcement intelligence, justice, finance, and transportation security. These relationships, all 
based on deep trust and confidence, strengthen the enduring cohesiveness of the Five Eyes relationship. 

It is this cohesiveness that makes the Delisle incident nothing more than a troublesome speed bump on the 
road to enhanced intelligence sharing. Granted, Canada must work to restore the trust and confidence of its Five 
Eyes partners, but they all must recognize that there are bigger issues looming. Geo-strategic developments and 
evolving security threats demand an enduring and strengthened Five Eyes relationship. In the wake of Delisle's 
escapade, not only must Canada continue to contribute credible and valuable intelligence support to its partners, 
the Five Eyes intelligence community as a whole must remain integrated, effective and dominant. 


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Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community 


Appendix 1: Principal Five Eyes intelligence bodies 


COUNTRY 

SIGNALS 

INTELLIGENCE 

(SIGINT) 

NATIONAL 

ASSESSMENT 

DEFENCE 

INTELLIGENCE 

SECURITY 

INTELLIGENCE 

HUMAN 

INTELLIGENCE 

(HUMINT) 

COUNTER- 

TERRORISM 

CENTERS 

Canada 

Communications 

Security 

Establishment 

Canada 

(CSEC) 

International 

Assessment 

Staff 

(IAS) 

Chief of 
Defence 
Intelligence 
(CDI) 

Canadian 
Security 
Intelligence 
Service (CSIS) 

CSIS (note) 

Integrated 

Threat 

Assessment 

Centre 

(ITAC) 

USA 

National 
Security Agency 
(NSA) 

Central 
Intelligence 
Agency/ Director 
of Intelligence 
(CIA/DI) 

US State 
Department/ 
Intelligence and 
Research Bureau 
(State/I NR) 

Defence 

Intelligence 

Agency 

(DIA) 

Federal Bureau 
of Investigation 
(FBI) 

Central 
Intelligence 
Agency/Director 
of Operations 
(CIA/DO) 

National 

Counter 

Terrorism 

Centre 

(NCTC) 

UK 

Government 

Communications 

Headquarters 

(GCHQ) 

Cabinet Office 
Assessment Staff 
(C0AS) 

Defence 
Intelligence 
Staff (DIS) 

British Security 
Service 
(BSS) (MI-5) 

Secret 
Intelligence 
Service 
(SIS) (MI-6) 

Joint Threat 
Assessment 
Centre 
(JTAC) 

Australia 

Defence 

Signals Director- 
ate 

(DSD) 

Office of 
National 
Assessments 
(0NA) 

Defence 

Intelligence 

Organization 

(DIO) 

Australian 

Security 

Intelligence 

Organization 

(ASIO) 

Australian Secret 
Intelligence 
Service 
(ASIS) 

National Threat 
Assessment 
Centre 
(NTAC) 

New Zealand 

Government 
Communications 
Security Bureau 
(GCSB) 

National 

Assessment 

Bureau 

(NAB) 

Directorate 
of Defence 
Intelligence 
and Security 
(DDIS) 

New Zealand 
Security 
Intelligence 
Service 
(SIS) 

(inherent in 

SIS mandate) 

Combined 

Threat 

Assessment 

Centre 

(CTAG) 


Note: CSIS has a security intelligence, not a foreign intelligence, mandate. CSIS acts as the Canadian gateway 
for CIA, SIS and ASIS HUMINT reporting. 


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Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community 


Bibliography 

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Canada and the Five Eyes Intelligence Community 


STRATEGIC STUDIES WORKING GROUP 

The Strategic Studies Working Group (SSWG)isa partnership between the Canadian International Council 
(CIC) and the Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute (CDFAD.The CIC absorbed the former Canadian 
Institute of Strategic Studies (CISS) upon the CIC's formation in 2008, and the CISS's original focus is now 
executed by the SSWG. 


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